Acronym that stands for Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a polymer based on high-strength synthetic resins used in the construction of packaging, television sets, toys, etc.
Paint with very high resistance to light that performs better with respect to yellowing. It is often used with light woods where any yellowing of the paint would cause a very unpleasant colour change. It gives the wood a very natural appearance as it can be applied with a minimum of thickness without creating the effect of covering the wood panel with a transparent film.
Acrylic is a thermoplastic material similar in appearance to glossy lacquered finish. It is also non-toxic, remains unchanged over time, retaining all its original characteristics of brilliance, and the colour does not yellow with age. It is resistant to ultraviolet rays and moisture. It is not resistant to the following products: acetone, ink and ethyl-butyl acetate.
It consists of a polypropylene-based (PP) decorative sheeting for indoor use free of halogen, plasticiser and formaldehyde. It is suitable for covering surfaces of wood-based materials and is used in the production of furniture components. A thermosetting paint gives the sheeting the properties necessary for these applications. For processes with different gluing systems, the sheeting is reinforced on the back with a primer and the gluing is done with dispersion or hot melt or solvent glues.
Silvery white metal – malleable and very light – mainly used in aeronautics. Used both die-cast and drawn, it is then painted or protected by anodic oxidation processes, which makes the surface layers resistant to scratches and corrosion.
The central panel of a door is generally made of veneered or covered chipboard.
Defined as a wood particle board, it mainly consists in wood processing scrap and residual tree branches. This makes it an ecological product as it does not require the felling of trees. It is made of wood chips and particles pressed and glued together with thermosetting adhesives. It is commonly used after veneering, finishing with melamine paper or covering with PVC or laminate, materials that give the panel the desired aesthetic qualities. From a mechanical point of view, a chipboard panel has an excellent dimensional stability that makes it essential for use on large surfaces where solid wood would have enormous problems remaining flat. It is also much lighter than MDF, but also has very little resistance to moisture, especially in its raw state. However, the materials normally used to cover it guarantee a good resistance to water, especially depending on the type and method of the covering.
Formaldehyde is a substance used for the production of many adhesives and resins, which in turn are also used in the processing of wood panels. Panels produced in this way can release gaseous formaldehyde molecules into the environment. This emission, considered harmful to people's health, is regulated in many countries of the world by specific rules and laws.
The main ones are as follows:
- European legislation (E1)
In Europe (for Italy Ministerial Decree 10/10/2008) the current limit is set at 0.1 ppm corresponding to formaldehyde class E1, obtained with testing methods EN 717-1:2004 or EN ISO 12460-3:2015.
- Japanese standard (F4****)
In Japan, the classification level of formaldehyde emissions is set by the Japanese standard JIS A 1460:2015 ranging from F* to F****. Currently, F**** (F4stars) is the world's most stringent regulation for the emission of formaldehyde (< 0.3 mg/litre, i.e. about half of the European E1).
- US legislation (CARB ATCM Phase 2/EPA TSCA Title VI)
In California, which has always been the US state most attentive to issues of ecology and health, the law currently sets emission limits for all wood-based products. In particular, the ATCM CARB 2 Regulation requires limits to be within 0.09 ppm, according to the American standard ASTM E 1333-69 (2002) (large chamber method), so the California regulations are among the most stringent on the planet. Unfortunately, there is currently no official correlation between the values obtained with the ASTM method and the corresponding method used in Europe (EN 717-1 or EN 717-2). The products concerned must have third-party certifications issued by bodies authorised and recognised by the California Air Resource Board (CARB Phase 2 certification, also called CARB 2). Since 1 June 2018, the CARB limits for California have been extended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to all other federal states, so wood-based materials sold in the US must comply with CARB ATCM Phase 2 and EPA TSCA Title VI.
- European legislation (E1)
Full load-bearing structure, usually rectangular, made by joining four or more strips. If the frame is rectangular, the vertical elements are called uprights and the horizontal ones cross members.
Organic glass with the same aesthetic characteristics as glass, but with a number of important advantages: it is unbreakable, resistant to scratches, chemicals and impacts. It can be worked with standard woodworking tools and machines and is available in custom sizes.
The level of gloss of the painted surface, using a special instrument called a glossmeter:
- Matt: up to 10 gloss units
- Semi-matt: from 11 to 35 gloss units
- Semi-glossy: 36 to 60 gloss units
- Glossy: from 61 to 80 gloss units
- Highly glossy: over 80 gloss units
It is one of the most abundant rocks on the earth's surface. It is an intrusive igneous rock (it originates when magma remains trapped in the earth's crust, solidifying at depth). Its name comes from the Latin granum (grains), with clear reference to its holocrystalline structure (granular), so from an aesthetic point of view the granite presents itself in grains. It is mainly composed of quartz (between 20 and 60%) and therefore contains hard materials.
HPL stands for High Pressure Laminates. Laminates of this type are composed of layers impregnated with phenolic resin and a decorative covering impregnated with melamine resin, agglomerated under the combined effect of heat and high pressure, thus giving life to a product with exceptional qualities of hardness and resistance to scratches, wear, impacts, chemicals and fire. They are mainly used for worktops.
Adhesives that, when applied in the melted state, create a bond thanks to their cooling and the pressure exerted between the two elements to be glued. They are reversible in that, if brought back to temperatures ranging from about 60°C to 100°C, they soften and temporarily lose their adhesive power.
Lacquering is a type of varnishing that uses lacquer, i.e. a coloured polyester and/or polyurethane covering that hides the veins of the wood, unless it is open-pore varnishing, i.e. a varnishing that colours and allows the veins of the wood underneath to be seen.
Also known by the trade name "formica", it is made of phenolic resins (support) and melamine resins (decorative paper) glued together in such a way as to form sheeting of about 0.6 mm. It is used to cover wooden panels (laminated panels). Laminates where the thickness of the support resins is greater than 1 mm are defined as layered laminates which, thanks to their mechanical characteristics, can be used as self-supporting panels without being applied to wood panels.
MDF stands for medium density fibreboard and is made of branches and woodworking scrap. These panels are ecologically interesting because their production does not involve the systematic felling of trees. They are made up of wood fibres obtained by steam and special machines and then bound together with thermosetting adhesives. Once pressed, these fibres (very similar to cotton wool) give the panel good mechanical characteristics, excellent dimensional stability and compactness along the edges, making it indispensable for the production of lacquered panels, veneered with PVC, and in cases where large surfaces are needed, where the wood could present problems of flatness. However, they have a high weight and generally low resistance to moisture.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), therefore it contains semi-hard materials. Marble is formed through a metamorphic process from sedimentary rocks, like limestone or dolomite, which causes a complete recrystallisation of its primary component, calcium carbonate. From an aesthetic point of view, marble looks like a homogeneous paste.
Paper impregnated with melamine resins. It can be of various colours or imitate the grain of wood. It is used for the covering of chipboard panels, which after this treatment are called melamine-faced panels.
Chipboard panel whose surfaces have been covered with sheets of paper impregnated with melamine resins.
PET is the abbreviation of polyethylene terephthalate, a synthetic thermoplastic material that is part of the polyester family. It is a thermoplastic resin that is suitable for contact with food but it is also used in other areas, including the medical and cosmetic industries and more recently in the furniture sector. A product originally produced from petroleum or methane gas which can be recovered and endlessly transformed without losing its properties and resistance. Although its characteristics are similar to PVC, it has the great eco-friendly benefit, unlike polyvinyl chloride, of not producing any toxic substances during combustion. PET is thus a valued material that respects the environment and can easily be recycled and used to make excellent products. Doors covered in this material are made with MDF panels on which PET sheets are applied with a thickness varying between 0.3 mm and 0.4 mm, according to the type of finish.
Polyvinyl chloride is one of the most widely used plastic materials in the furniture industry. It is used to cover both structural elements and doors. It is regarded as non-ecological, but in reality the possible risk factors relate solely to the phases of production and destruction of the material (unless burnt in special incinerators, it can produce harmful emissions). It can be coloured and can imitate wood grains. Being a thermoplastic material, it is not very resistant to heat and tends to change form at temperatures between 75 and 95°C.
The thickness of the dry film of paint on a component is identified by measuring the thickness of the quality of paint applied:
- Open pore: up to 5 microns thick
- Semi-open pore: 6 to 20 microns thick
- Semi-closed pore: 21 to 60 microns thick
- Closed pore: over 60 microns thick
Operation of covering a raw panel with various materials like laminate, PVC, veneer, etc.
Panel made when five or more layers of wood are combined with perpendicular grains and bonded with water- and moisture-resistant adhesives.
Normally used where thick paints with excellent mechanical resistance (lacquered panels) are required. As it is harder than acrylic or polyurethane paints, it is normally also used on table tops and other elements subject to wear. It can be polished (glossy lacquer) with systems that use increasingly fine grits until a mirror surface is achieved. Polyester paints also have low resistance to light and therefore are not suitable for producing very light-coloured coatings that yellow easily.
Polypropylene (PP) is an environmentally friendly thermoplastic polymer with high quality production technology. It is also a product resistant to acids, solvents, light and moisture, characteristics that make it particularly suitable as an alternative to the more popular PVC and ABS.
PUR or polyurethane glues are widely used in the carpentry sector and form strong bonds that are resistant to crosswise stresses. It is therefore difficult to remove two elements glued with PUR without damaging them. Another important property of PUR adhesives is that they harden easily.
The most used in the wood sector because it is economical and easy to apply. As it has little resistance to light, it tends to turn yellow and is therefore not suitable for painting light-coloured wood.
Application of a laminated surface on a substrate of irregular shape (usually curved or otherwise shaped), as with the machine edging of a panel.
A special printing method where ink is passed through the mesh of a silk fabric (screen) except where the mesh has been blocked by an impermeable masking. When used on glass, the screen printing can be tempered at high temperatures so that it becomes indelible on the glass.
A steel that is resistant to corrosion and certain chemical agents. To be defined as such it must contain at least 12% of chromium. Stainless steel 18/10 means that it is 18% chromium and 10% nickel. Thanks to its hygiene it is often used in the food industry (pots, sinks, worktops).
Resins that exert their bonding power thanks to chemical reactions that are partly activated by heat. The most important ones in the furniture industry are obtained by combining formaldehyde and other base resins. Having undergone a chemical reaction, they are irreversible adhesives and therefore resist even high temperatures. The polyurethane adhesives used by Lube to glue the edges of the drawers are of this type.
A type of coating (lacquering) where the products applied are hardened thanks to irradiation carried out by special lamps that emit high-energy ultraviolet light. These systems allow for a very quick and effective hardening of the resins, which normally produce very hard and resistant films.
A thin sheet of wood (about 0.6 mm) cut from tree trunks. It is used to cover wood panels (MDF, chipboard, solid wood, etc.), which are then referred to as veneered.
Glass with special hardness and impact resistance obtained through tempering. This process consists in heating the glass to high temperatures (650°C) and then cooling it rapidly by blasting it with jets of air.
In the furniture sector, "raw" chipboard, MDF or plywood panels are considered water repellent if they resist the swelling caused by water in the wood fibres for a certain period of time, as established by regulations. This resistance is not absolute and there is a scale of values. Maximum resistance corresponds to the definition of a water-repellent panel. Of course other factors like the type of veneer and gluing/sealing of the edges also contribute to the panels' water resistance.
Used for new ecological painting systems where the solvent used is water. This solves significant environmental problems (just think that in some cases during drying as much as 70% of the product applied evaporates in the form of polluting solvents). Water-based paints are still in the experimental phase.
Wood is taken from tree trunks. It is, therefore, a natural material with all the characteristics this implies. Differences in grain or shade between the different parts cannot therefore be considered as a cause for complaint. Cucine LUBE has nonetheless included strict controls on wood finishes and combinations in its Quality System, in order to reduce any problems to a minimum. Exposure of wood to direct sunlight may cause entirely normal changes in colour, linked to the natural change in the material. The wood matures over time and may turn a slightly different shade, which should not be considered as a defect. It should be remembered that, even after processing, it behaves like a living product, changing in volume as the humidity in the surrounding environment changes.
Alloy made of pure zinc, aluminium and magnesium, which in addition to being significantly inert from a chemical point of view, lends itself very well to the processes of die-casting. In the furniture sector it is used mainly for the production of knobs and handles.